Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) along the banks of the Musi River, Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million and about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an average altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft), much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city’s founding—north of the city centre.
The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi River forms the “Old City”, while the “New City” encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks. The two are connected by many bridges across the river, the oldest of which is Purana Pul (“old bridge”).Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, to which it is connected by Hussain Sagar.
Hyderabad was historically known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, and it continues to be known as the “City of Pearls”. Many of the city’s traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar.